Videoecology is a new scientific direction deals with ecology of visual environment and a beauty
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The concept on automaticity of saccades is the basis of videoecology.
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Theoretical and practical problems of videoecology are worked out in Moscow centre "Videoecology"
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The full concept of saccades automaticity is set out in V.A.Filin's monographs "Videoecology", in Russian (3 editions) and in English and "Automaticity of saccades", in Russian
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Main page --> Videoecology --> An eye as an organ of vision

Eye is the most dynamic sense organ never resting at a fixed point but constantly moving in two basic planes: the horizontal plane (to the right - to the left) and the vertical one (upward-downward). These dynamic activities are provided mostly by the nature of the oculomotor system and in particular by its nerve centers efforts as well as by the nature of ocular muscles being the most fast-acting ones in the organism (Fig. 1).

Fig.1 Arrangement of external eye muscles Fig. 1. Arrangement of external eye muscles (conventional scheme) 1 - trochlea, 2 - inferior oblique muscle, 3 - superior oblique muscle, 4 - musculus levator palpebrae superioris, 5 - internal direct muscle, 6 - external direct muscle, 7 - optic nerve, 8 - inferior direct muscle, 9 - superior oblique muscle

Eye activity, to a great extent, is facilitated by its spherical form and minimum friction - in fact, an eye practically "floats" in the orbit; thus making it possible to move freely and to investigate visual environment rapidly. This possibility is vital because, above all, an individual's eye can clearly monitor surrounding objects be the extremely small part of the retina (only 0.4 mm in diameter) the so-called central fossa (fovea centralis) (Fig. 2). Whereas the visual field is comparatively big (about 180°), the central fossa is 1.5-2.0° in size, i.e. approximately 100 times as smaller.

Fig.2 Right eye horizontal section scheme Fig. 2. Right eye horizontal section scheme 1 - conjunctiva, 2 - helmet canal, 3 - iris of the eye, 4 - cornea, 5 - front chamber, 6 - rear chamber, 7 - Bowman's muscle, 8 - zonule fibers, 9 - lens, 10 - vitreous body, 11 - optic axis, 12 - papilla, 13 - sclera, 14 - tunic, 15 - retina, 16 - optic nerve, 17 - cribriform lamina, 18 - macula lutea (yellow spot), 19 - central pit

The maximum power of vision is within the central fossa. It degrades sharply towards the peripheral parts of the retina (Fig. 3). While observing the figure shown on this page, one can tell that we are capable of clear vision by the "very top of the Eiffel tower". With our eyes firmly fixed, we could see only one half of the face of an individual walking in the opposite direction at a distance of 3 m, while the whole image of an individual could be seen at a distance of 48 m only. With eyes fixed, an individual could obviously face problems on street orientation. Thus, the basic mode of eye movements is associated with "object positioning" into the clear vision area. There exist other eye movements as well: compensatory - together with turns of a head, convergent-divergent movements, fusion and torsion ones.

Fig.3 Dependence of visual acuity on stimulus position in the visual field Fig. 3. Dependence of visual acuity on stimulus position in the visual field. Upper curve - daylight vision, lower one - night vision Visual acuity Nasal portion of vision Fovea Temporal portion of vision

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Videoecology Videoecology is the science of interaction between a human being and visual environment
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Doctor of biology, academician of International Academy of sciences Vasiliy A. Filin is the founder of the videoecology as a science .
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Visual environment is all we perceive by organ of vision, in other words it is all we look at by our eyes
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